Ngu phap va bai tap Anh 11

INFINITIVES

A. Infinitive with to / To-infinitive:

  1. Moät soá ñoäng töø sau ñaây ñöôïc theo sau bôûi To inf.

decide (quyeát ñònh)

hope (hy voïng)

manage (coá gaéng, xoay sôû)

promise (höùa)

seem (döôøng nhö)

start * (baét ñaàu)

begin* (baét ñaàu)

like* (thích)                       + (O)

love* (thích)                      + (O)

hate* (gheùt)                      + (O)       + To-inf.

ask (hoûi, yeâu caàu)             + (O)

expect (mong ñôïi) + (O)

help**(giuùp ñôõ)                + (O)

intend (döï ñònh)                + (O)

invite (môøi)                       + (O)

want (muoán)                     + (O)

wish (öôùc, muoán)              + (O)

allow (cho pheùp)               +  O

advise (khuyeân)                +  O

get                                     +  O

tell (baûo)                           +  O

Example:

- We decided to make a trip to Dalak.

- She wants to have a cup of tea.

- My cousin wanted me to take her to the supermarket.

- My grandparents often advise me to study hard.

* Löu yù:     + Ñoäng töø vôùi * coù theå ñöôïc theo sau baèng To infinitive hoaëc V-ing

+ Ñoäng töø vôùi ** coù theå ñöôïc theo sau baèng To infinitive hoaëc Infinitive without to

  1. To-infinitive coù theå ñöôïc duøng sau moät soá tính töø chæ nhöõng phaûn öùng, vaø caûm giaùc cuûa con ngöôøi.

delighted (vui)

lovely (đáng yêu)

pleased (vui, haøi loøng)

anxious (boàn choàn, lo laéng)

shocked (bò sock)

surprised (ngaïc nhieân )                + To inf

happy (hạnh phúc)

glad (vui, haân haïnh)

afraid (ngaïi)

sorry (laáy laøm tieác)

Example: I’m glad to come to your party  today.

  1. To-infinitive coù theå ñöôïc duøng ñeå noùi veà muïc ñích, hoaëc yù ñònh laøm vieäc gì ñoù:

Example:   She learns English to find a good job

  1. To-infinitive coøn ñöôïc duøng trong caùc caáu truùc sau:

-          TOO + adj + (for someone) + to inf.

-          adj + ENOUGH  + to inf.

Example: – The tea is too hot (for me) to drink.

- He’s strong enough to lift this stone.

e. To-infinitive cuõng ñöôïc duøng trong maãu caâu vôùi chuû töø giaû “It”:

It is (not)            impossible        + for someone  + to -inf.

easy

important

necessary

usual

Example: It’s  impossible for him to find a job now.

f. Chuùng ta coù theå söû duïng  to infinitive  sau  moät soá danh töø hoaëc ñaïi töø  nhö laø moät thaønh phaàn boå nghóa cho caùc danh töø hoaëc ñaïi töø  ñoù ñeå thay theá cho moät meänh ñeà quan heä.

Example:           I have a lot of work to do.

= I have a lot of work which I have to do.

g. Nhöõng ñaïi töø baát ñònh nhö something, anything, nothing  vaø nhöõng töø töông töï thöôøng ñöôïc theo sau bôûi “ for + O + to inf

Example:  There’s nothing for the cats to eat.

B. Infinitive without to / VBI (verbs bare inf)

  1. a.      Sau ñoäng töø let vaø make laø moät taân ngöõ vaø moät cuïm VBI

let ( ñeå), make (baét, buoäc)  + O + VBI

Example:           – The film made me cry.

- Let me go!

b. Infinitive without to / VBI  coøn ñöôïc duøng sau nhöõng ñoäng töø sau:  see, watch, hear, smell, feel.

Example:           – I feel the earth move.

- We watched Liverpool and Manchester play  on TV last night. (xem heát traän ñaáu)

* Löu yù: Sau caùc ñoäng töø see, watch, hear ta duøng VBI khi haønh ñoäng  ñöôïc chuùng ta thaáy (see), xem (watch), nghe (hear)

Practice:

Complete each of the following sentences with to-inf and/or inf without to:

  1. I’ve decided  (buy)…… a new apartment.
  2. What time do you expect (arrive) …… inChicago?
  3. That T-shirt makes you (look) …… younger.
  4. Let me (post) …… that letter for you.
  5. It’s important for students (do) ……their homework.
  6. I promise you your order will (send) …… today.
  7. She went to the post office (buy) …… some stamps.
  8. He isn’t tall enough (reach) …… the top sheft.
  9. We listened (sing) …… a song.
  10. I heard her (shout) …… at the children.
  11. It’s too cold for us (go) …… swimming today.
  12. It takes 5 hours (fly) …… from Los Angerles toHonolulu.
  13. I saw her (across) …… the road.
  14. They have a lot of homework (do) ……..
  15. John is easy (please) ……
  16. I’m sorry ( have troubled) ……you.
  17. It’s late. I think we had better (go) …… home.
  18. We can (leave) …… soon.
  19. Don’t let the children (annoy) …… you.
  20. We want (stay) …… home tonight.
  21. My father allowed me (use) ………… the camera.
  22. People use their money (buy) …… and (sell) …… things.
  23. She asked us (sit)… down and went (make) … some coffee.
  24. Tim is too young (join) ………… the army.
  25. The movie was very sad. It made me (cry) …………
  26. Would you like (come) ………… to dinner on Friday?
  27. It took us three hours (get) ………… here.
  28. I’d rather (go) …… (shop) …… than anything else.
  29. I wonder if you’d be kind enough (help) ………… me.
  30. The robbers forced the manager (open) ………… the safe.

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PAST SIMPLE, PAST PERFECT & PAST PROGRESSIVE

  1. 1.                  Simple past
    1. a.                  Form

v Khaúng ñònh:                 S   +   V2 / V-ed ……

v Phuû ñònh :                   S   +  didn’t    +  V1  ….

v Nghi vaán :                 Did   +  S        +  V1   …..?

  1. b.                   Use

w Dieãn taû haønh ñoäng xaûy ra vaø chaám döùt taïi moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc khoaûng thôøi gian xaùc ñònh trong quaù khöù .

Ex:     He met her yesterday.

He lived in Hanoi from 1990 to 2000.

They didn’t meet each other  last night.

w Caùch nhn biết:  yesterday, ago, last + time , in + year , from… to .

  1. 2.                  Past continuous
    1. Form

   v Khaúng ñònh:           S  +   were / was              + V-ing …….

v Phuû ñònh :            S   +   were / was +  not   +  V-ing ……

v Nghi vaán :         Were / Was +   S               + V-ing ……?

  1. b.                  Use

w Dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñang xaûy ra taïi thôøi ñieåm xaùc ñònh trong quaù khöù .

Ex:    What were you doing at 8.00 last night ? I was watching television .

When I got home , the children were crying and the dog was barking .

w Dieãn taû haønh ñoäng bò giaùn ñoaïn .

Ex:    While I was having a bath, the phone rang .

He was making some coffee when we arrived .

w Diễn tả hai haønh ñộng ñang diễn ra cuøng một luùc.

Ex: I was learning my lesson while my parents were watching TV at 8.30 last night.

While he was playing football, we were listening to music.

w Caùch nhn biết: 

At that moment ( vaøo luùc ñoù)

At that time ( vaøo luùc ñoù)

At this time yesterday ( vaøo luùc naøy hoâm qua)

At this time last night ( vaøo luùc naøy toái hoâm qua)

At 4 (5, 6 …) o’clock yesterday (vaøo luùc 4 (5, 6…) giôø hoâm qua.)

All day yesterday ( suoát ngaøy hoâm qua)

  1. 3.                  Past perfect
    1. a.                  Form

vKhaúng ñònh :                       S          +  had                + V3 / V-ed …

vPhuû ñònh :                             S          +  had   + not     +  V3 / V-ed  …

vNghi vaán :                           Had       +   S                   +   V3 / V-ed ….  ?

  1. b.                  Use

w Dieãn taû haønh ñoäng xaûy ra tröôùc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc hoaëc thôøi ñieåm khaùc trong quaù khöù .

w Caùch nhn biết:  before, after, by the time, when, as soon as.

Ex:   My parents had already eaten by the time I got home.

Until yesterday , I had never heard about it .

Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple, past perfect and past progressive:

  1. He said he (join) …….. the army in 1985.
  2. Bill (have) …….breskfast when I stopped at this house.
  3. When I went back to the shop, they (sell) …….. the book I wanted.
  4. Hoe many countries they (visit) ….. by March last year.
  5. When he (come) …….. home, I (talk) …….. to my mother on the phone.
  6. While I (lie) …….. in bed last night, I (hear) …….. a strange noise in front of the door.
  7. It (rain) …….. heavily when I (sleep) …….. yesterday afternoon.
  8. While Mrs Smith (plant) …….. flowers in the garden, Mr Smith (change) ……..  the oil in his car.
  9. When  we (arrive) …….. at the airport, they (wait) …….. for us there.
  10. He (do) …….. a lot of jobs before he (work) …….. in this company.
  11. Yesterday while I (look) …….. at my computer screen, I (start) ……. feel a little dizzy, so I (take) ….. a break.
  12. Susan (send) …….. a letter to her university after she (receive) …….. her scholarship check.
  13.  Tom (meet) …….. Mary in 1986 and they  have been  good friends since then.
  14. After they (visit) ……..Paris, they (go) …….. toManchester.
  15. George (work) …….. at the university 45 years before he (retire) ……..
  16. After Tom (wash) …….. his clothes, he (begin) …….. to study.
  17.  When John and I (got) …….. to the theatre, the movie (start) ……..
  18.  Before I could say anything, they (admit) …….. their mistakes.
  19. I (hit) …….. my thumb while I (use) …….. the hammer. Ouch! That (hurt) ……..

While I (read) …….. books in the living room last night, I (hear) …….. a strange noise in the kitchen. I (go) …….. to the kitchen, (turn) …….. on the lights. I (hold) …….. my break and (listen) …….. carefully. I (realise) that a mouse (chew) …….. on something  under the cupboard

 

  1. The vase broke when it (move) to the other room.
  2. When I entered his room, I saw him ( sleep ) in a chair.
  3. If only I ( have ) money with me, I ( lend ) you some.
  4. why are you under the table?    You (look) for something?
  5. David (wash) his hands. He just (repair) the TV set
  6. The radio (play) since 7 a.m. I wish someone would turn it off.
  7. “Where is Jane?” “Down stairs sir” .”She (greet) the guests
  8.   Mr Brown  just ( finish) reading the letter when the telephone  on his desk ( ring)
  9.   Those students who ( fail) the exam are going to take another one held in August
  10.   Hurry up or you ( be) late for class.
  11.   Hurry up or our favourite TV programme ( be) over long before we ( reach) home
  12.   I  ( not have ) much time for entertainment  these days.
  13.   Look! A man ( run) after the bus. He wants to catch it.
  14.   We don’t  want to ( pay ) low wages.
  15.   Two robbers ( put) in prison  escaped yesterday.
  16.   It is 2 years since I ( last give) presents on Christmasday.
  17.   Nothing ( do) about this problem for months
  18. There (be) no guests at all since I left.
  19. I am sorry about the noise last night. We (have) a party.
  20. In a few minutes’time, When the clock (strike) six, I (wait) here for three hours
  21. She (sleep) for 10 hours! You must wake her
  22. She (have) a headache for several hours.
  23. I (watch) a cartoon movie on TV when you called last night.
  24. Mr Hai is having his car (wash) at the moment.
  25. Where’s Tom? He said he (be) here at 4 pm.
  26. If I (drink) so much coffee, I wouldn’t be able to sleep.
  27. Nothing ( do) about this problem for months
  28. I’m looking forward to (take) a vacation.
  29. I’m hungry because I( have) breakfast or lunch.
  30. I’d rather you (do) the test well.
  31. I distinctly remember (pay) him. I gave him two dollars
  32. Look at those black clouds. It (rain).
  33. What you ( do ) after you ( go ) home yesterday?
  34. Before leaving home in the morning, she (tell) her mother she (work) in the factory that afternoon.
  35. I realised that someone ( steal ) my wallet when I ( feel ) his hand in my pocket.
  36. She (be) here but she (go) down with flu.
  37. Bill (have) breakfast when I (stop) at his house this morning.
  38. Yesterday I  ( walk ) along the street when I ( realize ) a man with a black beard, whom I ( see ) three times already, ( follow ) me.
  39. What do you  think the children ( do ) when we get home.
  40. Our house ( destroy ) in the storm last night.
  41. The police ( look ) for the painting now.
  42. You ( find ) the wallet which you lost yet?
  43. Spring ( be ) the time when many kinds of flowers blossom.
  44. He ( not, phone) his girlfriend every day.
  45. I would like  ( fax ) this document to my office inHanoi.
  46. Before the postage stamp ( invent ), it was difficult to send a letter to another country.
  47. You ( meet ) Henry tomorrow.
  48. Laura ( paint ) a picture at 6:00 yesterday morning.
  49. I ( pick ) you up when you ( arrive ) at the airport at 9 o’clock tomorrow.

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Gerund

1. Gerund làm chủ ngữ:
Eg: Learning E is interesting.
Cách dùng này tương đương với cấu trúc: It is + adj + to – inf
Eg: Learning E is interesting = It is interesting to learn E.
2. Gerund đứng sau giới từ:
* Adj + giới từ + gerund:
- Nervous / worry + about
- Good/ bad / clever / skilled / … + at
- Sorry / responsible + for
- Be keen + on
- Fond +of
Eg. She is good at studying  English

* V + prep + gerund:
- look forward to
- success to
- think of / about
- dream of / about
- insit on
- surprised at
- Interested in
- Busy with
Eg.I always think about being rich

* V + O + prep + gerund:
- Prevent s.o from
- Thank s.o for
- Spend money/time on
- Accuse s.o of (buộc tội)
Eg.Thank you for helping me

* N + prep + gerund:
- Have difficulty in: sự khó khăn
- There is no point in: k đáng/ chẳng đáng
3. Gerund as a O:

admit                  thöøa nhaän , advise   khuyeân baûo

allow                  cho pheùp, avoid       traùnh neù, traùnh xa

complete            hoaøn thaønh,  consider caân nhaéc, xem xeùt

continue             tieáp tuïc,     can’t help           khoâng theå khoâng

can’t stand          khoâng theå chòu ñöôïc

delay                  hoaõn laïi

deny                   phuû nhaän

discuss                thaûo luaän

dislike                 khoâng thích

enjoy                  thích thuù

encourage          khuyeán khích

finish                  hoaøn thaønh, keát thuùc

forbid                  caám ñoaùn

give up               töø boû

keep (on)            cöù , cöù tieáp tuïc

mention              ñeà caäp ñeán , noùi veà

mind                   chuù yù,quan taâm

miss                    boû lôõ

permit                 cho pheùp

postpone             trì hoaõn

practise               luyeän taäp , thöïc haønh

quit                              boû , töø boû , ngöøng nghæ

recommend        ñeà nghò

resent                 giaän , oaùn giaän

resist                   cöôõng laïi , choáng laïi

suggest               ñeà nghò

tolerate               khoan dung , tha thöù

understand         hieåu

4. V + to – inf/gerund:k thay đổi nghĩa
- Start, Begin
- Consider
- Continue
- Intend
Eg.-It starts to rain

-It starts raining

5. V + to – inf/gerund: thay đổi nghĩa
- Try:
+ to – inf: cố gắng
+ gerund: thử
- Stop:
+ to – inf: ngừng việc này để làm việc khác
+ gerund: kết thúc (thôi làm gì)
- Forget/remember:

+ to – inf: quên/nhớ trước 1 hành động khác
+ gerund: quên nhớ sau 1 hành động khác
Eg: I remember seeing that film
You remember to post the letter for me
- Regret
+ to – inf: lấy làm tiếc sắp làm điều gì
+ gerund: ân hận một điều gì đã (không) làm.
Eg: I regret to say that your not accepted for the job.
I regret buying the secondhand car.

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VERB FORMS

­ Give the correct form of verbs in brackets.

  1. Many young people are fond of (play) football and other kinds of sports.
  2. They couldn’t help (laugh) when they heard the little boy singing a love song.
  3. Your house needs(redecorate) .
  4. I remember (allow)them to play in my garden.
  5. Did you accuseNamof (break) a plate? Well, I saw him (knock) it off the table with his elbow.
  6. We found it very difficult (work) with Gamma.
  7. I can’t read when I am traveling. It makes me(feel) sick.
  8. I need (know) what’s in the letter. Why don’t you let me (read) it?
  9. I suggest (suggest) some more mathematical puzzles.
  10. We regret (inform) you that we cannot approve your suggestion.
  11.  The driver stopped (have) a coffee because he felt sleepy.
  12. You had better (stay) at home until you feel better.
  13. I remember (hear) my mother said the grass in the garden needed (cut).
  14. Peter sometimes help his sister (do) homework.

15. I would rather (stay) at home than (go) out with you.

16. I would rather you (drive).

17. My father wanted me (become) a pilot.
18. Please wait a minute. My boss is busy (write) something.
19. My teacher doesn’t allow us (talk) while he is explaining the lesson.
20. We have plenty of time. We needn’t (hurry)
21. I promised (be) on time. I mustn’t (be) late.
22. Mary and I are looking forward to (see) you.
23. I’m sure that he knows how (use) this new machine.

24. I don’t like (watch) T.V. I’d like (come) to her house this everning.

25. She is trying (not fall) in love again.

26. Students stop (make) noises when the teacher came in.

27. Did you remember (phone) Ann? – Oh no. I completely forgot it.

28. They tried (put) out the fire then but it took them nearly a house.

29. Those shirts need (iron) but you don’t need (iron) them now.

30. I really regret (hurt) your feeling when I ask you such a silly question.

31. He’ll try (not make) the same mistake again.

32. Someone must have taken my bag. I clearly remember (leave) it by the window and now it has gone.

33. They stopped (take) 5’ break.

34. Don’t forget (give) her the message when you see her.

35. You should try (wear) any shirts you want to buy.

36. Every hour he stops work (smoke) a cigarettes

37. I regret (tell) you that you have failed the exam.

38. I can’t go on (work) here any more. I want a different job.

39. When I came into the room, Liz was reading a newspaper. She looked up and said hello to me , and then went on (read) her newspaper.

40. Jim went on (have) another two sandwiches after he had had a pizza. I don’t think he’ll have a stomach ache soon.

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PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND GERUND

1. Passive inf:
a. Form: to be + past participle

b. Use:
* Dùng sau một số động từ để chỉ sự bị động của chủ từ:
Eg: We hope to be considered again.
* Để đưa ra lí do:
Eg: He works hard not to be blamed.
* Sau các tính từ:
Eg: She is glad to be invited to the party
* Dùng sau danh từ:
Eg: It’s time to be separated.
2. Passive gerund:
a. Form:Being + P.P

b. Use:
Gerund ở thể bị động có các cách dùng giống như cách dùng của gerund ở thể chủ động, nhưng mang nghĩa bị động.
* Làm chủ ngữ:
Eg: Being treated unfairly made her decide to quit the job.
* Làm tân ngữ sau 1 số động từ như: like, hate, mind …
Eg: I don’t like being laughed at.
* Làm tân ngữ cho giới từ:
Eg: She is afraid of being beaten.
Compare:
ACTIVE GERUND
1. Instead of selecting a applicants, he went out for a coffee
2. The teacher is keen on including the new students in the school activities.
3. Kate enjoys phoning Jane
PASSIVE GERUND
1. Instead of being selected a applicants, he went out for a coffee
2. The teacher is keen on being included the new students in the school activities.
3. Kate enjoys being phoned Jane

1.Presentation:

A. Passive gerund:

Example:

- I don’t enjoy being laughed at by other people.

- Instead of being accused, he was  set free.

a. Form:  BEING + PP

b. Usage: Pasive gerund can come in the same pattern as the active forms, for example after some verbs (risk, stop, ect) or some prepositions (of, at, in, etc.).

B. Passive to-infinitive:

Example:

- She ought to be told about it.

- I didn’t expect to be invited to his party.

a. Form:  TO BE + PP

b. Usage: Pasive to-infinitive can come in the same pattern as the active forms, for example after some verbs (expect, hope, want, ect) or some adjectives (happy, delighted, glad, easy, etc.).

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:

  1. It is easy (fool) ………….. by his lies.
  2. Martha doesn’t like to have her picture taken. She avoids (photograph) ………………
  3. I appreciate  (invite) …………. to your home.
  4. Let’s not risk (catch) ………. in a traffic jam.
  5. The government tried to stop the book (publish) ………….
  6. (search) …………….. by customs officers is unpleasant.
  7. There’s a lot of work (do)…………….
  8. The new students hope (include) …………… in many of the school’s social activities.
  9. When the police first questioned him, he denied (involve) …………. in the robbery.
  10.  I remember (take) ………. to the zoo when I was a child.
  11. We managed to climbed over the wall without (see) ………
  12. Isabel expected (admit) ………..to the university, but she wasn’t.
  13. The tin opener seems (design) …… for left-handed people.
  14. Many reliable methods of storing information tended (forget) …………. When the computers arrived.
  15. She resented (ask) ……………to make tea for everyone at the meeting.
  16. Let’s leave early. We can’t risk (hold up) …………in heavy traffic during rush hour.
  • Answer key:
  1. to be fooled
  2. being taken
  3. being invited
  4. being caught
  5. being published
  6. Being searched
  7. to be done / to do
  8. to be included
  9. being involved
  10.  being taken
  11. being seen
  12.  to be admitted
  13.  to be designed
  14.  to be forgotten
  15. being asked
  16.  being held up

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GERUND & PRESENT PARTICIPLE

1.Presentation:

A. Gerund:

a. Formgerund = V-ing

b. Usage: The gerund often acts like a verb and a noun at the same time. It can be used:

- as the subject of a sentence

Eg: Playing tennis is not expensive inEngland

- as complement of a verb

Eg: What I have to do now is writing a letter to her.

- as an object of a preposition

Eg: She’s afraid of living alone.

- after certain verbs such as enjoy, miss, finish, avoid, etc.

Eg: I enjoy listening to jazz.

B. Present participle:

a. FormPresent participle = V-ing

b. Usage: The present participle indicates action, more like a verb or an adjective. It can be used:

- as a verb in the continuous tense form

Eg: She’s cooking dinner.

- as an adjective

Eg: It’s an interesting story.

- to replace a relative clause

Eg: The man (who is) standing next to the door is my father.

- to replace subject + verb in the main or subordinate clauses

Eg: Entering the room, I saw him.

- after some verbs like catch, find, leave, etc + someone

Eg: I caught him climbing the fence.

Don’t leave her waiting outside in the rain.

- after some verbs such as waste, spend, go, be busy, ect

Eg: You waste too much time copying the Lessonagain.

It’s very hot today. Let’s go swimming.

- after some verbs of perception such as see, hear, watch, smell,       

        feel, observe, notice, etc

Eg: I heard him coming into the hall.

2.Practice:

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct verb form (gerund, present participle, infinitive):

  1. We will go (camp) …………. inBaDenmountain this summer vacation.
  2. That’s such an (amuse) ……….. story that I can’t put it down.
  3. (take) ……….. the umbrella with him, he went out in the heavy rain.
  4. I have to work hard these days. I am always busy (do) ……….. my home work.
  5. Would you like to go (fish) ……….. with me on Saturday afternoon?
  6. It was one of my most (embarrass) ……….. experiences in my life.
  7. That he passed the exam is very (surprise) ………..
  8. The woman (wear) ……….. a red dress is my neighbor.
  9. We spend most of my time (read) ……….. science book.
  10. The film is very (bore) ………… So I kept on sleeping in the rex.
  11. I didn’t like (work) ………… so I suggested (spend) ………… the day in the garden.
  12. I’d rather (go) ………… for a swim then (play) ………… tennis.
  13. We’d better (study) ………… hard.
  14. Why do you keep (look) ………… back? Are you afraid of (be) ………… followed?
  15. ( write) ………… gives him a lot of pleasure.
  16. Does your sister mind (cook) ………… everyday?
  17. Have you ever considered (go) …………to live in another country?
  18. He tried to avoid (answer) ………… my questions.
  19. When I’m tired, I enjoy (watch) ………… TV. It’s relaxing.
  20. The movie was very sad. It made me (cry) …………
  21. I’ll do the shopping when I’ve finished (clean) ………… the apartment.
  22. Paula has given up (try) ………… to lose weight.
  23. When I was a child, I hated (go) ………… to bed early.
  24. Would you like (come) ………… to dinner on Friday?
  25. He left the hotel without (pay) ………… his bill.
  26. Are you looking forward to (see) ………… Ann again?
  27. After (find) ………… a hotel, we looked for someplace to have dinner.
  28. It took us three hours (get) ………… here.
  29. I’d rather (go) ………… (shop) ………… than anything else.
  30. My close friend is fond of (sew) …………
  31. I was very tired. I tried (keep) ………… my eyes open, but I couldn’t.
  32. She told me (lock) ………… the door.
  33. My father allowed me (use) ………… the camera.
  34. It was a nice day, so we decided (go) ………… for a picnic.
  35. They jog every morning (lose) ………… weight and (have) ………… a good health.
  36. She is busy (feed) ………… the baby all the time.
  37. Would you mind my (smoke) ………… here?
  38. He doesn’t let anyone (talk) ………… in the working time.

39. Most people prefer (spend) ………… money to (earn) ………… it.

40.Susan wants (go) ………… toHanoinext week.

————————————————————

PERFECT GERUND AND PERFECT PARTICIPLE:

- Cách dùng tương tự Present Participle & gerund nhưng về mặt ý nghĩa, nó diễn tả hoặc nhấn mạnh sự hoàn thành của 1 hành động
Eg1: Finishing my homework, I went to bed: Sau khi làm xong bài tập tôi đi ngủ
Having finished my homework, … : Sau khi đã làm xong bài tập …
* Câu thứ hai nhấn mạnh việc đi ngủ chỉ xảy ra sau khi đã làm xong bài tập.
Eg2: I approve of helping the poor: Tôi đồng ý với việc giúp đỡ người nghèo
I approve of having helped the poor: Tôi đồng ý với việc các bạn đã giúp đỡ người nghèo
* Câu thứ hai diễn tả ý giúp đỡ người nghèo này đã xảy ra rồi.
- Perfect gerund:     HAVING+ PP

Eg: I had had dinner and then I went out for a walk last night.
-> Having had dinner, I …
* Use: Rút gọn & diễn tả 1 hành động xảy ra trước 1 hành động khác/
- Perfect participle:
Eg: They denied having been there.

PREP/ VERB + HAVING+ PP

* Use: diễn tả hành động xảy ra trước hoặc ko xảy ra trước.

* Exercise: Fill in the blank in each of the following sentences with an appropriate form of the verb in parentheses (gerund, participle, perfect gerund or perfect participle)

1. Mai apologized for (use) my bicycle yesterday morning without (ask) for my permission.

2. (Watch) this film several times before, I started (fall)asleep in the middle of it.

3. In all the conditions of a drunkard, Mr. Le began (drive) straight back home, (forget) (not, pay) any money to the barman.

4. (Organize) the 16th APEC summit conferences successfully,Viet Nam gained the reputation of (be) the safest and friendliest venue for such significant international events.

5. After (defeat) all his opponents, Hai won the gold medal in that interschool chess tournament.

Key:

1. having used, asking

2. having watched, falling

3. driving, forgetting, not having paid

4. having organized, being

5. having defeated

 

——————————————–

REPORTED SPEECH WITH INFINITIVE

Vaøi ñieåm caàn nhôù veà caâu töôøng thuaät:

Khi ñoåi sang caâu töôøng thuaät, caàn ñoåi ba yeáu toá laø ngoâi, thì cuûa ñoäng töø vaø

traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán.

1.1 Ngoâi: (nhaát – chuû, nhò – tuùc, tam – nguyeân)

- Ñoåi ngoâi thöù NHAÁT phuø hôïp vôùi CHUÛ TÖØ trong meänh ñeà chính.

- Ñoåi ngoâi thöù HAI phuø hôïp vôùi TUÙC TÖØ trong meänh ñeà chính.

- Ngoâi thöù BA khoâng ñoåi.

1.2 Thì cuûa ñoäng töø:

V1 —> V2/ed

V2/ed —> had + V3/ed

can —> could, will —> would, shall —> should, may —> might, must —> had to

1.3 Traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán:

today —> that day

tonight —> that night

now —> then

ago —> before

yesterday —> the day before

the previous day

last week —> the week before

the previous week

next week —> the week after

the following week

tomorrow —> the day after

the following day

this —> that

these —> those

here —>there

Ex1: He said to me, “I and you will go with her father tomorrow.”

—> He told me (that) he and I would go with her father the following day.

Ex2: She said to me, “I met your brother yesterday.”

—> She told me (that) she had met my brother the day before.

* LÖU YÙ: Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thay ñoåi tuøy nghóa cuûa caâu. Moät soá ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät phoå bieán laø: tell (baûo), ask (yeâu caàu, hoûi), encourage (ñoäng vieân), want (muoán), advise (khuyeân), agree (ñoàng yù), invite (môøi), remind (nhaéc nhôû), promise (höùa), warn (caûnh baùo), …

  * Form:

We use to-infinitive  in  reported speech (commands, requests,

invitations, advise)  as follows.

a. S + V + to-infinitive

Verbs: agree, offer, promise, refuse, threaten, ect

Eg:  -   Direct:   “I’m not going to walk all that way”, saidGary.

–> Indirect:  Gary refused to walk all that way.

  1. S + V + O + to-infinitive

Verbs: advise,ask, beg, command, encourage, forbid, invite,order, recommend, remind, request, tell, urge, warn, ect

Eg: -   Direct:    “Would you like to stay at our house”, Mark  said to us.

–> Indirect:  Mark invited us to stay at his house.

Some more examples:

  1. “Get out of the room”, she said.

–> She told me to get out of the room.

  1. “Could you carry some bags, Mike?”

–>She asked Mike to carry some bags.

  1. “Would you like to have dinner with us?”

–> They invited me to have diner with them.

  1. “ Please do send me to a warm climate”, he asked/begged.

–> He asked/ begged us to send him to a warm climate.

  1. “Don’t swim out too far, boys”, I said.

–> I warned the boys not to swim out too far.

6. “You had better hurr, Bill!”, she said.

–> She advised Bill to hurry.

    * Exercises:

  1. The teacher said to us, “Write your lessons carefully”.

–> …………………………..…………………………… (tell)

  1. Mary said to Paul, “Please don’t put your hat on my bag”.

–> ………………………..……..…………………………(tell)

  1. “Please don’t drink any more”, said his wife.

–> ……………………………………..………………… (beg)

  1.  “Can you do the washing up?”, I offered.

–> …………………………………….………………… (offer)

  1. “I won’t forget the shopping”, she promised.

–> ………………………………….………………… (promise)

  1. “Would you like to come to my party?”, he invited her.

–> ……………………………………………………… (invite)

  1. “I phone the police” she threatened.

–> ……………………….……………………………( threaten)

  1. “You should stop smoking”, the doctor advised him.

–> …………………..……………………………..…… (advise)

  1. “Wait outside”, I told her.

–> ………………………………………………………… (tell)

  1. “Could you please ring back in half an hour?”, said the secretary.

–> ………………………………………………………… (ask)

  1.  “Would you mind movingbyour case?”, said the other passenger.

–> ………………………….……………………………… (ask)

  1. “Remember to book  the table”, said Ann.

–> ………………………….………………………… (remind)

  1. “Get into the right lane”, said the driving instructor.

–> ………………………………………………… (tell / warn)

  1. “Avoid Marble Arch”, said the policeman.

–> ……………….……………………………………… (warn)

  1. “Why don’t you take some medicine”, he advised me.

–> ……………………………………………………… ( advise)

  1. “Why don’t you open the bank account?”, said Jack.

–> …………………..……………………….………… (advise)

  1. “Would you like to have lunch with me today?”, said Tom.

–> ……………………..………..……………………… (invite)

  1. “Don’t forget that we have to drive home”, said his wife.

–> ………….……………….………………………… (remind)

19. “Do go to the dentist, Tom, before your toothache gets any worse”, I said.

–> ……………….……………………………………… (urge)

20. “Shall I go and get a candle?”, said Ann when the light went out suddenly.

–> ………….…………………………………………… (offer)

21. “I’ll buy you  a bunch of bananas”, said Mary.

–> …………………………….…….………… (promise)

22. “I can lend you some money”, Sue said to us.

–> …………….………………………….……………… (offer)

23. “Try again”, said Ann’s friends encouragingly.

–> ……………….………..….…….……………… (encourage)

24. “Go on, apply for the job”, said Jack.

–> ……………..…………………………… (urge / encourage)

25. “Will you be quiet!”, he said.

–> ……………..……….………………………… (order / tell)

26. Tom asked me, “Could you book me a room in a hotel for tonight?”

–> …………………………..…………………………… (want)

27. He told the boys, “Go away”.

–> ……………………………….………………………… (tell)

28. “Would you sho me your passport, please?”, he said.

–> ……………………………….………………………… (ask)

29. “Please, please don’t take any risks”, said his wife.

–> ………………………………………………………… (beg)

30. “Forget all about this young man”, said her parents; “don’t see him again or answer his letter’s”

–> …………………..……………………………… (order, tell)

—————————————————————————

REPORTED SPEECH WITH GERUND

1.Presentation:

     * Form:  We use gerund in reported speech as follows.

 

1. S + V + gerund.

- Verbs: admit, deny, recommend, regret, suggest, ect.

- Eg:  Direct: She  said to me, “I broke the vase of flowers”.

–> Indirect: She admitted breaking the vase of flowers.

 

2. S + V  + preposition + gerund.

- Verbs:  apologize (to sb) for…, dream o….f,  insist on…., object to…., ect.

- Eg: Direct: She  said to me, “I’m sorry. I broke the vase of flowers.”

–> Indirect: She apologized (to me) for breaking the vase of flowers.

 

3. S + V  + O + preposition + gerund.     

- Verbs:  accuse…..…of, blame…..…for, congratulate….…..on, prevent…….from, thank…….for, warn ..…against, ect

- Eg:  Direct: Mary told Peter, “It was your fault. You didn’t tell me the truth”.

–> Indirect: Mary blamed Peter for not  telling her  the truth.

2. Practice:

* Exercises:  Turn the following sentences into reported speech:

 

1. “You took the money,” he said.

–> ……………………………………………(accuse)

2. “I stole his bicycle,” he said to the police.

–> ……………………………………………(admit)

3.  He said to the police, “I didn’t steal the bike”.

–> ……………………….……………………(deny)

4. He said, “I’m sorry I’m late”.

–> …………………………………………(apologize)

 

5. “I’ll drive you to the airport. I  insist,” John said to Linda.

–> ……..………………………………………(insist)

6. “I’m happy to hear that you have passed the final exam. Congratulations!,” Jim said to me.

–> …………………………………………(congratulate)

7. “It was nice of you to invite me to dinner. Thank you,” Miss White said to George.

–> ..…………………………………………(thank)

8. “Don’t play with the matches,” I said to Jack.

–> ……………………………..…(warn … against)

9. “I must have made a mistake in the calculations,” said Mr Forest.

–> ……………………………………………(admit)

10. “I’ll pay for the meal,” Sarah insisted.

–>………………..……………………………(insist)

11. Neil told us, “Perhaps we can go toParisfor the weekend.”

–>……………………………………………(suggest)

12. “I’m sorry. I couldn’t come to visit you last summer,” Kate said to her parents.

–> …………………………………………(apologize)

13. “I hear you won the championship. Congratulations!,” Said Dane.

–> ……………..………………………(congratulate)

14. “We should take the jumper back to the shop,” Jack said to us.

–> …………………………(recommend + O + to-inf)

–> ……………………………( recommend + gerund)

15. “It’s not true! I have never been arrested by the police,” Larry said.

–> ……………………………………………(deny)

16. “I always want to be a rich man,” said David.

–> ……………………………………………(dream)

17. The manager told the visitors, “Don’t stay at the hotel near the airport.”

–> …………………………………(warn…against…)

–> …………………………………(warn …… to-inf)

18. “Let’s eat out tonight,” said Tom.

–> ……………………………………………(suggest)

19) “It was really kind of you to help me.” Mary said to you.

à Mary thanked me…………………………………………………………………………….

20) “I’ll drive you to the airport.” John said to Linda..

à John insisted……………………………………………………………………………………

22) “You have passed the final exams. Congratulations!” Jim said to you

à Jim congratulated me……………………………………………………………………….

23) “It was nice of you to invite me to the dinner. Thank you”, Miss White said to Peter.

à Miss White thanked………………………………………………………………………….

24) “Don’t play with the matches!” I said to Jack.

à I warned………………………………………………………………………………………….

25) “I’m sorry I didn’t phone you earlier”, Margaret said to you.

à Margaret apologized………………………………………………………………………..

26) “I have always wanted to be a pilot”, Paul said to you.

à Paul has always dreamed of……………………………………………………………..

27) “You didn’t do what I said”, the mother said to her son.

à The mother accused………………………………………………………………………….

———————————————————————

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

 

Loại

 

Main clauses

 

If clause

 

1. Điều kiện có thể xảy ra ở tương lai

 

 

Simple present

    (hiện tại đơn)

 

will/shall … + V1

 

 

2. Điều kiện không thể xảy ra ở hiện tại

 

 

Simple past (Quá khứ đơn )

    (be à were )

 

would /should /… + V1

 

3. Điều kiện không thể xảy ra ở quá khứ

 

Past perfect (Quá khứ hoàn thành )

        

 

would/should… + have + V3/V-ed

 

 

 

Note:   1. Unless = If … not ( nếu không, trừ phi)

Ex :Unless it rains, we will  go to the movies = If it doesn’t rain, we will go to the movies

                        Unless they attended class regularly, they couldn’t understand the lesson = If they didn’t attend class regularly, they couldn’t understand the lesson

              2. As long as / provided / providing (that) : với điều kiện là

Ex: You can borrow my book as long as you use it carefully.

You can play providing (that) you don’t make so much noise.

             3. Suppose, supposing: giả sử

Ex: Supposing you won a lot of money, what would you do?

  1. In case: phòng khi, trong trường hợp

Ex: Take an umbrella with you in case it rains.

  1. Omitting IF

–        Ì anyone should call, please take a message.-> Should anyone call, ….

–        If I were you, I wouldn’t do that -> Were I you,…

–        If  I had known, I would have told you. -> Had I known, …

 

 

Exercises:

* Sentence transformation:

1.  The war will spread everywhere if we don’t stop it.

→ Unless ………

2.  All our beautiful forests will be destroyed if we do nothing to preserve them.

→ Unless……….

3. If he hasn’t got a ticket, they won’t let him in.

→Unless ………..

4. If it doesn’t rain, we will have no water to use.

→Unless ………

5. These flowers will die if nobody waters them.

→Unless …..

6. Do your exercises or you will be punished.

→Unless ….

7. The building is too high. He can’t climd up.

→If ……..

8. That house is too expensive. I can’t buy it.

→If …….

* Put the verb into the correct tense:

1. If I (continue) with my diet, I (lose) five kilos by the end of the month.

2. If I have enough apples, I (bake) an apple pie this afternoon.

3. If I had enough apples, I (bake) an apple pie this afternoon.

4. I will fix your bicycle if I (have) a screwdriver of the proper size.

5. If I (have) enough money, I would have gone with you.

6. If the weather had been nice yesterday, we (go) to the zoo.

7. It’s too bad Helen isn’t here. If she (be) here, she (know) what to do.

8. If I find a good book, I (give) it to you.

9. He will get a price if he (work) hard.

10.If Jack called, I (speak) to him.

11.You wouldn’t have any accident if you (drive) carefully.

12.If you turn off the light, we (be) in dark.

13.If Lan (not study) hard, she will fail the exam.

14.You (be) able to go on a vacation if you have enough money.

15.If he fails the test, he ……….. (be furnished) by his parents.

* Sentence transformation

1. I don’t buy it because I don’t have enough money.

° If I ____________________________________________________

2. There was a test yesterday. I didn’t know that, so I didn’t study for it.

° If I ____________________________________________________

3. He’s very thin, that’s why he feels the cold so much.

° If he __________________________________________________

4. I didn’t eat breakfast several hours ago, so I am hungry now.

° If I ____________________________________________________

5. You must work harder or you won’t pass the exam.

° You won’t ______________________________________________

6. I didn’t have an umbrella with me and so I got wet.

° I wouldn’t ______________________________________________

7. You drink too much coffee, that’s why you can’t sleep.

° If you _________________________________________________

8. Dick is in prison because a detective recognized him.

° If a detective ____________________________________________

9. He doesn’t have the money and he cannot afford a new car.

° If ______________________________________________________

10. Susan felt sick because she ate 4 cream cakes.

° If ______________________________________________________

11. We didn’t know your phone number, so we could not contact you.

° If ______________________________________________________

12. I cannot go to the beach with you this weekend because I have a date with my old classmates.

° If ______________________________________________________

13. I never got very lonely because I have lots of good friends.

° If ______________________________________________________

14. The match can be cancelled because it rains heavily.

° If ______________________________________________________

15. She must apologize to me or I’ll never speak to her again.

° I’ll _____________________________________________________

16. You must work harder or you won’t pass the exam.

° You won’t _______________________________________________

17. Without Jack’s help, I wouldn’t have been able to move the table.

° If ______________________________________________________

18. In the snowy weather we don’t go to school.

° If ______________________________________________________

19. Make me some coffee, and I’ll give you one of my biscuits.

° If ______________________________________________________

20. Working so much will make you tired.

° If ______________________________________________________

21. Without your help, I wouldn’t have found the way out.

° If ______________________________________________________

22. Mary will go with us unless she has to do her homework.

° If ______________________________________________________

23. Without the sun, man would live in darkness.

° If ______________________________________________________

24. If I were stronger, I could bring the TV.

° Were _________________________________________________________

25. If the referee had seen the foul, he would have awarded a penalty kick to our team.

° Had __________________________________________________________

26. He is not a famous musician by now because he died so young.

° Had __________________________________________________________

27. I would buy that villa if I were rich.

° Were _________________________________________________________

28. I could have given them some advice if they had asked me.

° Had __________________________________________________________

29. If the plane hadn’t been diverted, they would have arrived early.

° Had __________________________________________________________

30. If anyone should call, please take the message.

° Should ________________________________________________________

31. I would have more energy if I were young.

° Were _________________________________________________________

32. Rooney didn’t catch the ball and didn’t win the game.

° Had Rooney ___________________________________________________.

33. If John had played for our football team, we would not have lost the game.

° Had __________________________________________________________

34. If Pauline hadn’t been interested, the project would have been abandoned

° Had __________________________________________________________

35. You stayed up too late last night, so you feel tired now.

° If ____________________________________________________________

36. I am in great trouble now because you didn’t warn me.

° If ____________________________________________________________

37. She doesn’t love him, so she left him.

° If ____________________________________________________________

38. He is not a famous musician by now because he died so young.

°If _____________________________________________________________

39. She got married at such an early age, so she isn’t at university now.

° If ____________________________________________________________

40. If I didn’t win the lottery, I am not rich now.

° If ____________________________________________________________

41. She wasn’t born in theUSand she need a visa now to work here.

° If ____________________________________________________________

42. She didn’t sign up for the ski trip last week and she won’t join us tomorrow.

° If ____________________________________________________________

43. Darren wasted his Christmas bonus gambling inLas Vegas, he won’t go toMexicowith us next month.

° If ____________________________________________________________

44. I am not currently rich and that is why I didn’t buy the Ferrari yesterday.

° If ____________________________________________________________

45. Cindy is not creative and the company won’t send her toNew Yorkto work on the new campaign.

° If ____________________________________________________________

——————————————-

Conditional in reported speech

Khi viết câu điều kiện dưới dạng câu tường thuật thì:
Type 1 lùi 1 thì
Type 2 và Type 3 không đổi
Ex1: “If I go out with Tom, he won’t go alone” Mary said
–> Mary said (that) if she went out with Tom, she wouldn’t go alone.
Ex2: “What would you do if you went abroad?” Nam asked Trung
–>Nam asked Trung what he would do if he went abroad?

———————————————————-

RELATIVE PRONOUNS/ ADVERBS

I. Đại từ quan hệ: who, whom, whose, which, that.

  • Who: được dùng để thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người và làm chủ ngữ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ  (…… N + who + V)

The man who is standing over there is my father.

N        who          V

  • Whom: được dùng thay thế cho một danh từ chỉ người và làm tân ngữ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ.  (……N + whom + S + V)

The man whom you met yesterday is my brother.

      N       whom    S     V

  • Whose: là đại từ quan hệ sở hữu, thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người hoặc danh từ chỉ vật (thay cho: his, her, its, their, Tom’s…)

The house whose windows are broken is mine.

N              whose         N           V1       V2

+ Riêng danh từ chỉ vật có thể thay thế bằng the + N + of which

Example: The house the window of which are broken is mine

  • Which: được dùng làm chủ ngữ hoặc tân ngữ thay thế cho danh từ chỉ đồ vật, con vật hoặc sự việc.

Example: This is the book which I like best.

  • That: được dùng thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người hoặc chỉ vật, hoặc chủ ngữ gồm cả người và vật, sau những đại từ không xác định, hoặc sau dạng so sánh nhất…

Example: – That is the bicycle that/ which belongs to Tom.

- The architect who/ that designed this building is very famous.

NOTES

  1.  “That” thöôøng ñöôïc duøng trong caùc tröôøng hôïp sau:

Ÿ Khi töø ñi tröôùc chæ ngöôøi vaø vaät .

Ex:       The girls and flowers that he painted were vivid.

Ÿ Sau so saùnh nhaát  khi danh töø ñi tröôùc laøm taân ngöõ vaø sau nhöõng töø nhö :  the first, the last, the only, the very, any, all, nothing, anything, everything, few, nobody, …

Ex:       You are the person that I have been looking for.              She is the ugliest girl that I’ve ever seen.

I have never seen anyone that is as  lovely as she .

  1. “That” khoâng bao giôø ñöôïc duøng trong caùc tröôøng hôïp sau:

Ÿ Ñaïi töø  quan  heä coù giôùi töø ñöùng tröôùc

Ex: The house in which / in that   I live is my father’s.

That is the man from whom / from that  I borrowed the car.

Ÿ Meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng giôùi haïn

Ex: Viet Nam, which / that is in the south-east Asia, exports rice.

I- Fill in the blanks with relative pronouns/ adverbs. Put commas when they are needed:

1. Alexander Flemming _______ discovered penicillin received the Nobel Prize in 1945.

2. The book ______ I need can’t be found in the library.

3. Here is the beach ______ is the safest for swimmers.

4. Do you know the American woman ______ name is Margaret Mitchell?

5. Jim ______ I have known for ten years is one of my closest friends.

6. John found a cat ______ leg was broken.

7. Don’t sit on the chair ______ is broken.

8. This tree ______ branches are dry should be cut down.

9. The child smiled at the woman ______ he didn’t know.

10. That woman ______ name I don’t remember is a doctor.

11. Children enjoy reading the books ______ have colored pictures.

12. I met someone ______ said he knew you.

13. The noise ______ he made woke everybody up.

14. The film is about a spy ______ wife betrays him.

15. Those girl ______ serve in the restaurant are the owner’s daughters.

16. The house ______ walls and roof are made of glass is a green house.

17. Rod Lee ______ sister I know is a film actor.

18. Mr. Bake will buy the house ______ is opposite to my house.

19. You have to take care of the books ______ you borrowed from the library.

20. Karl Marx ______ theories have changed the world’s history is the German Philosopher.

21. Let me see all the letters _____ you have written.

22. Is there anyone ______ can help me do this?

23. Mr. Brown ______ is only 34 is the director of this company.

24. The chief of police, ______ work is very important, takes care of the public safety.

25. I know a place ______ roses grow in abundance.

26. The teacher with ______ we studied last year no longer teaches in our school.

27. They showed me the hospital ______ buildings had been destroyed by bombings.

28. We saw many soldiers and tanks ______ were moving to the front.

29. We must find a time ______ we can meet and a place ______ we can talk.

30. The decision was postponed, ______ was exactly what he wanted.

II. Combine these pairs of sentences, using WHERE, WHICH, WHO, WHOM, WHOSE, THAT

1. The girl is sitting by Jack. She is Mary.

2. Can you understand the question? He asked you the question last time.

3. Is that the girl? We saw her on T.V last night.

4. The farm produces milk. We visited it last Sunday.

5. At last he married the girl. He loved her.

6. The man is an engineer. We play with his daughter everyday.

7. He didn’t receive the letter. I sent him the letter last January.

8. He often tells me something about his village. He was born there.

9. My sister wants to speak to you. You met her at my birthday party.

10. The children like the funny stories. Their grandmother tells them those stories every evening.

11. Jack London is a famous American writer. He wrote “Iron heel”.

12. The boy is sitting next to Mary. He is Jack.

13. I didn’t receive the letter. My mother sent me the letter last month.

14. The factory makes exported furniture. We visited it yesterday.

12. The baby likes those songs. His grandmother sings those songs every evening.

15. You sent me a present. Thank you very much for it.

16.  Romeo and Juliet were lovers. Their parents hated each other.

17. This is Mrs. Jones. Her son won the championship last year.

18. This is the house. We often stay in this house in the summer.

19. That was the time. He managed the enterprise at that time.

20. I was sitting in a chair. It suddenly collapsed.

21. This is the story of a man. His wife suddenly loses her memory.

22. Charlie Chaplin died in 1977. His films amused millions of people in the world.

23. Please post these letters. I wrote them this morning.

24. The building is the church. Its tower can be seen from afar.

25. I’ll show you the second-hand bookshop. You can find valuable books in this shop.

26. The police want to know the hotel. Mr. Bush stayed at this hotel two weeks ago.

27. The reasons are basic grammatical ones. I’m scolded by the teacher fro these reasons.

28. I have not decided the day. I’ll go toLondonon that day.

29. The airport is the most modern one. We are going to arrive at this airport.

30. She doesn’t want to speak to the cause. She divorced her husband for this cause.

31. He doesn’t want to sell the house. He was born in this house.

32. The teacher is Mr. Pike. We studied with him last year.

33. The problem  has been discussed in class. We are very interested in it

34. Many diseases are no longer dangerous. People died of them years ago.

35. Do you see my pen? I have just written the lesson with it.

36. I like standing at the windows. I can see the park from this window.

37. The boy is my cousin. You made fun of him

38. This is rare opportunity. You should take advantage of it to get a better job.

39. This matter is of great importance. You should pay attention.

III. Choose the best option to complete each of the following sentences.

1. The new camera ______ I bought on the internet last week  is broken.

A. whom                                 B. which                                  C. for which                            D. at which.

2. We met Mary’s father, ________.

A. who teaches us English      B. whom teaches us English.C. whose teaches us English     D. that teaches us English.

3. The teacher _____ is very kind to everyone.

A. to whom I talked yesterday                                               B. who I talked yesterday.

C. to that I talked yesterday                                       D. that I talked yesterday.

4. Do you know the person ______ this book was written? A. by whom     B. who               C. whom      D. which

5. The children, …………… parents work late, are taken home by bus.

A. that                                     B. whom                                 C. whose                                 D. their

6. She doesn’t understand …………….. I am saying. A. what B. that                         C. whose         D. where

7.The place ……………….. we spent our holiday was really beautiful.

A. what                                   B. who                                    C. where                                 D. which

8. My uncle _____ you met yesterday is a lawyer. A. what   B. whose         C. whom         D. which

9. Alexander Fleming, ______, received the Nobel Prize in 1945.

A. that discovered penicillin                                       B. who discovered penicillin

C. which discovered penicillin                                                D. he discovered penicillin

10. The boy ______ eyes are brown is my friend. A. who     B. whom         C. which          D. whose

———————————————————————-

DEFINING & NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

 

  1. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định (Defining Relative Clause): là mệnh đề được dùng để xác định danh từ đứng trước nó. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định là mệnh đề cần thiết cho ý nghĩa của câu, không có nó câu sẽ không đủ nghĩa.

The  man who robbed you has been arrested.

  • trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định có thể bỏ các đại từ quan hệ làm tân ngữ: whom, which, that và các trạng từ quan hệ trong lối văn thân mật

The book you lent me was very interesting.

Do you remember the day we met each other?

  1.  Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định (Non – defining relative clause): là mệnh đề cung cấp thêm thông tin về một người, một vật hoặc một sự việc đã được xác định. Đây là mệnh đề không nhất thiết phải có trong câu, không có nó câu vẫn đủ nghĩa. Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định được tách khỏi mệnh đề chính bởi dấu phẩy hoặc dấu gạch ngang.

That man, who lives in the next flat, looks very lonely.

The book “Jane Eyre”, which I was reading, is really good.

Note:Trong meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng xaùc ñònh ( khoâng giôùi haïn ) , danh töø xaùc ñònh thöôøng laø :

ò Danh töø rieâng :Nam, Hong , Mr. Smith, Mrs. Green ….

ò Ñaïi töø chæ ñònh : this , that , these, those

ò Tính töø sôû höõu : my, your , our , their , his, her .

Ex: ®  Mr. Pike is very nice. He is my neighbor.    è Mr. Pike , who is my neighbor , is very nice.

® This matter is of great importance. You should pay attention to it

è This  matter , to which you should pay attention, is of great importance.

®  Do you see my pen ? I’ve just written the lesson with it . è Do you see my pen, with which  I’ve just written the lesson

Combine these sentences into one, using relative  pronouns and relative clauses:

1. I met Mary. She asked me to give you this.

2. He is the customer. I lost his address.

3. She is the novelist. Her book won first prize.

4. She was dancing with a student. He had a slight limp.

5. I am looking after some children. They are terribly spoilt.

6. The bed had no mattress. I slept on this bed.

7. I was sitting in a chair. It suddenly collapsed.

8. This is the story of a man. His wife suddenly loses her memory.

9. I was waiting for a man. He didn’t turn up.

10. The car crashed into a queue of people. Four of them were killed.

11. I saw several houses. Most of them were quite unsuitable.

12. Tom was tired and wanted to stop. He had been driving all day.

13.  Ann felt quite fresh. She had slept in the back of the car.

14. Paul wanted to take the mountain road. His tyres were nearly new.

15. We lit a fire. It soon dried out our clothes.

16. He paid me $5 for cleaning the windows. Most of them hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.

17. Romeo and Juliet were lovers. Their parents hated each other.

18. There wasn’t any directory in the telephone box. I was phoning from this box.

19. This is Mrs Jones. Her son won the championship last year.

20. I bought a dozen of eggs. Six of them broke when I dropped the box.

Combine the sentences into one single sentence using relative clauses:

  1. The taxi driver was friendly. He took me to the airport.
  2. I must thank the people. I got a present from them.
  3. The town is small. I grew up there.
  4. That is the drawer. I keep the jewelry there.
  5. The woman pays me a fair salary. I work for her.
  6. My flat is in an old part of the city. It was built in the 1920s.
  7. The traffic is very noisy. It passes my flat.
  8. The local market sells excellent local produce. It is a two-minute walk from my flat.
  9. We went to Sandra’s party. We enjoyed it very much.
  10. John is one of my closest friends. I have known him for a very long time.
  11. The book is about a girl. She runs away from home.
  12. A new stadium will be opened next month. It can hold 90,000 people.
  13. Alaskais the largest state in theUnited States. My brother lives there.
  14.  My wife and I are really enjoying the TV set. We bought it for ourselves last week.
  15. Yesterday, Anna rescued a bird. The cat had brought it into the house.

————————————————————

RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH PREPOSITIONS

1.Presentation:

Examples:

1. The man was very helpful. I talked to him.

a.   The man whom / who  I talked to was very helpful.

b.   The man that I talked to was very helpful.

c.   The man  I talked to was very helpful.

d.   The man to whom I talked  was very helpful.

 

2.  The chair is nearly collapsed. The child is sitting in it.

a.    The chair which the child is sitting in is nearly collapsed.

b.    The chair that the child is sitting in is nearly collapsed.

c.    The chair  the child is sitting in is nearly collapsed.

d.    The chair in which the child is sitting is nearly collapsed.

 * Notes

- whom / who, whichthat có thể được sử dụng như là tân ngữ của một giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ.

- whom / who, whichthat  có thể được lượt bỏ đi  như ở câu  ví dụ 1c và 2c.

- Trong cách dùng Tiếng Anh trang trọng, giới từ được đặt đầu mệnh đề quan hệ (hay đại từ quan hệ) như ở ví dụ 1d và 2d.  Giới từ chỉ đứng trước whom hoặc which  mà không đứng trước that hoặc who; đại từ whom, which  lúc này không thể lượt bỏ.

      2. Practice:

* Exercise:Combine these sentences into one, using relative      

   pronouns and relative clauses:

  1. The movie was very interesting. We went to it.
  2. The man is over there. I told you about him.
  3. The woman pays me a fair salary. I work for her.
  4. Alicelikes the family. She is living with them.
  5. The picture is beautiful. Tom is looking at it.
  6. I enjoyed the music. We listened to it after dinner.
  7. The person was very friendly. I spoke to him.
  8. The motel was very clean. We stayed  at that motel.
  9. The person never came.  Sally was waiting for that person.
  10. I never found  the book. I was looking for it.
  11. One of my subjects is Literture. I  have been interested in Literature for a long time.
  12. The interviewer wanted to know the name of the college.  I had graduated  from this college.
  13. Organic chemistry is a subject. I am not familiar with it.
  14. The chair is very hard. I  am sitting in this chair.

——————————————————————————-

RELATIVE CLAUSES

                             REPLACED BY PARTICIPLES AND TO-INFINITIVE

1. Relative clauses replaced by participles (present and past participles)

a. Present participles (Hiện tại phân từ): được dùng khi động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở dạng chủ động.

Ex: a. The boy who is playing the piano is Ben.  ¨ The boy playing the piano is Ben.

b. We have a house which overlooks the park ¨ We have a house overlooking the park

c. The man who spoke to John is my brother  ¨  The man speaking to John is my brother

b. Past participles (Quá khứ phân từ): được dùng khi động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở dạng bị động.

Ex: a. They live in a house that was built in 1890  ¨ They live in a house built in 1890

b. The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting. ¨The ideas presented in that book are interesting.

2. Relative clauses replaced by to-infinitive phrases

- To-infinitive được sử dụng sau: the first, the second,…. the last, the only và sau hình thức so sánh nhất

Ex:  a. Yuri Gagarin was the first man who flew into space. ¨ Yuri Gagarin was the first man to fly into space.

b. The last person who leaves the room must turn off the light.¨ The last person to leave the room must turn off the light.

Rewrite the following sentences using present participle, past participle or to-infinitive:

1. Maxicorp were the only company which replied my letter.

2. Do you the man who is talking to my father ?

3. Applications which were sent after 23rd will not be considered.

4. We have a lot of exercises which we hace to do toninght.

5. Studies of her son are the most important thing that she cares  about.

6. The equipment which belongs to the club is insured.

7. George is the first person that we will interview.

8. Meetings which are held every month are called monthly meetings.

9. The most excellent students who were rewarded the scholarship would have a two-week holiday in VungTau.

10.The trees which were planted last week are growing well.

11. The man who is talking to John is fromKorea.

12. The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting.

13. Ann is the woman who is responsiple for preparing the budget.

14. English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters.

15. The books that are on that shelf is mine.

16. The children who attend that school receive a good education.

17. The psychologists who study the nature of sleep have made important discoveries.

18. The sunlight which comes through the window wakes me up early every morning.

19. John quincy Adams, who was born on July 11th 1767, was the sixth president of theUnited States.

20. These are the ancient houses which were built a long time ago.

21. The children who attend that school receive a good education.

22. We have an apartment which overlooks the park.

23. He was the second man who was killed in this way.

24. Here are some accounts that you must check.

25. He was the first man who reached the top.

26. In hot weather, many people enjoy lemonade, which is made of lemon juice water, and sugar.

27. Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.

28. I’d be more interested if I had a family that I had to cook for.

————————————————————

OMISSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS

1.Presentation: Omission of relative pronouns

* Examples:

-          The manager was away on holiday. I wanted to see him.

à    The manager (who / whom / that) I wanted to see was away on holiday.

* Notes:

- We can leave out the pronoun when it stands for an object pronoun of defining relative clauses, and there is no preposition in front of it.

- Clauses without relative pronouns are very common in informal English.

2. Practice:

   * Exercise 1 Combine the two sentences into one, using the relative clauses. Leave out the relative pronouns if possible.

Example:  Have you found the keys? You lost them.

à Have you found the keys (which / that) you lost

  1. I like the dress. Trang is wearing it.
  2. The fish was really delicious. We had it for dinner.
  3. We stayed at a hotel. Peter recommended it.
  4. The film was interesting. I watched it on TV last night.
  5. The flat was very old. My family used to live in it.
  6. The birthday party was too noisy. We went to it.
  7. Who was that boy? You was with him this morning.
  8. I don’t like tie. John is wearing it.
  9. The train was full of passengers and goods. We travelled on it.
  10. The church is 200 years old. Our class visited it.

* Exercise 2Tick (Ö ) the sentences in which the relative pronouns can be omitted.

Example:     Ö   Is this the car that the police are looking for?

___1. Everything that happened was my fault.

___2. Is there anything that I can do?

___3. The window that was broken has now been repaired.

___4. Where are the eggs that were in the fridge?

___5. The play that we saw last week was boring.

___6. The young man who I sat next to on the bus talked all the time.

___7. Do you know the girl who Tom is talking to?

___8. Linda works for a company that makes computers.

___9. The book about the young girl who runs away from home.

___10. He is getting on well with Mary, who he met last month.

___11. That’s the company for which Lan is working.

___12. The man who helped me to finish that work was my neighbour.

 

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